An ultrasound is a test that provides images of internal organs and various body structures. It is a diagnostic technique that may have applications in many specialties, particularly gynecology, obstetrics, orthopedics, urology, hepatology and gastroenterology. Being an agile examination, with no contraindications for the patient, it frequently constitutes, together with the clinical examination, the initial approach to diagnosing most diseases. The technological evolution of the machines has enabled to expand its fields of interest even more: the first application of ultrasonography and internal medicine has gone to almost all specialties.
Today the fields in which ultrasound is used the most belong to internal medicine (examination of the liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys), obstetrics and gynecology as well as vascular medicine (diseases of the veins and arteries).
The Doppler ultrasound is the last technological evolution of ultrasound as it is not limited to visualize internal organs but also provides information about the flow of blood in the arteries and veins that help for the better study of vascular diseases, in particular of stenosis.
The most recent and latest applications of ultrasound include the endocavitary technique or prostate and pelvic exams performed through internally introduced probes, which provide more accurate results. Moreover, the latest developments allow the ultrasound to study the structures of joints, muscles and tendons: this application of ultrasound is still evolving. The use of an ultrasound contrast agent, which was recently introduced, has further improved the diagnostic capability of the method, especially in oncology.